Types of Shares: Preference Shares & Equity Shares Explained

What are the types of shares in a company? Significance Of Shares in a firm is discussed in the article. Equity & Preference Shares are been explained.


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    types of shares

    Overview: Types Of Shares

    Investment is a great career option these days, as more individuals become conscious of the importance of stocks and commodities. The financial sector has been getting attention constantly for the past several months. Commodities or securities now represent 12.9% of overall assets. As an investor, you must grasp the fundamentals of the financial markets and how it operates.

    To understand shares and the types of shares, one must first understand shares and their significance in a firm.

    What is Share?

    According to the Companies Act 2013, a share is a shareholder’s interest in a company’s assets. In other words, shares indicate a shareholder’s ownership stake in a corporation.
    The equity or ownership of a corporation is included in the concept of a share. Each company is required to have a certain amount of share capital. A stock is a unified force of the firm’s complete equity. 

    A company’s equity is divided into small, equal proportions of a fixed number. Every quantity is referred to as a share. Shares are a portion of the shareholding of a corporation or liquid securities. For such businesses, shares serve as a store of wealth, enabling a fair allocation of any surplus profits.

    Equity capital, unlike borrowed funds received across any sort of credit or mortgage issue, has no direct responsibility to be returned to shareholders, and equities, while they may generate income as a profit distribution. Nearly every single firm, from small businesses to multinational corporations, offers some form of stock.

    Basic Attributes of a Share

    Some of the basic attributes of a share are as follows:

    • The money you put down to invest in a company is non-refundable. Nevertheless, company closure or capital reduction will have an impact on this.
    • A portion ought to be able to be moved. The company’s Articles of Incorporation must specify the procedures for transfer of ownership.
    • Registration must be allocated to each share. This makes it easier to keep control of and manage undivided interest. Yet, not all ownership contracts include this provision.

    Types Of Shares

    As per Section 43 of the Companies Act 2013, There are two different types of shares, they are as follows:

    • Preference Shares
    • Equity Shares

    Preference Shares

    Preference shares are a type of investment that a firm can create. Preferential investors get the first crack at the business earnings before the other investors. Moreover, preferential investors receive the money before ordinary stockholders of a firm collapse.

    Types of Preference Shares

    There are four types of Preference Shares which are mentioned below:

    • Convertible & Non-Convertible: In the case of convertible preference shares, stocks can be easily changed into equity stocks after fulfilling certain requirements. However, for non-convertible shares, stockholders do not have the option of transforming stocks into ordinary shares after meeting the firm’s Articles of Organization conditions.
    • Cumulative & Non-Cumulative: If a corporation doesn’t pay dividends on preference shares during a given year, a cumulative stock will carry over its dividend obligation to the subsequent year. On the other hand, for non-cumulative shares, if a corporation doesn’t distribute the dividends in a particular year, the value cannot be transferred to the next year.
    • Participating & Non-Participating: Participation preference stocks enable stakeholders to collect excess profits following the firm’s dividend payouts. In the case of non-participating preference shares, stockholders are not given the choice to collect dividends from the firm’s excess revenues; instead, they just get the fixed payouts that the organization offers.
    • Redeemable & Non-Redeemable: In the case of redeemable shares, the originating corporation can buy back or redeem the shares at a set price and time. These shares have no defined termination date. Non-redeemable preference shares are ones that the originating corporation can neither redeem nor buy back at a certain period.

    Equity Shares

    These are known as founding shares, and they account for the vast bulk of a company’s stock. Traders routinely swap shareholdings on stock exchanges because they are transferrable. As equity owners, owners are entitled to rewards as well as the right to vote on company concerns. The percentage of customers who issue common stock. These give shareholders a residual claim on the company and its earnings, allowing them to grow their portfolios through investment income.

    Common stockholders have voting rights, giving them more control over the corporation. Shareholders of record in a corporation can vote on specific corporate operations, elect board members, and authorize the issue of new securities or dividend payments using these rights. Furthermore, most ordinary shares from before have privileges, which enable investors to buy assets while keeping their equity stake when the firm pays fresh assets. Earnings, on either side, are not fixed and are distributed outside the business earnings. Keep in mind that, as a percentage of their investment, equity stockholders are exposed to the most risk due to market volatility and other factors affecting stock markets.

    Types of Equity Shares 

    The list of Equity Shares are listed below:

    1. Authorised Share Capital: According to the Memorandum of Association (MoA), it represents the total amount of capital that a business can raise through the issuance of stocks. 
    2. Paid-up/Subscribed Capital: It denotes the proportion of issued capital to which investors have subscribed. It is possible that investors will not purchase all of the shares issued by a corporation.
    3. Issued Share Capital: As the name implies, issued share capital refers to the amount of capital raised by a firm through the issuance of stocks. 
    4. Voting/Non-Voting Shares: As the name implies, entities possessing these voting shares have the right to vote on a company’s policies or the election of directors. The majority of ordinary shares are typically voting shares.

      Non-voting shares may have uneven voting rights or no voting rights at all. Tata Motors issued ‘A’ shares in 2008, which is an example of asymmetrical voting rights.

    5. Right Share: A corporation among the several forms of stocks issues this variety to its current owners. In a strict sense, firms give current stakeholders the right to purchase such shares before they are available for sale to outside investors. 
    6. Sweat Equity Share: Companies can issue shares as a kind of remuneration to their employees and directors, usually when they do exceptionally well. Companies retain efficient staff by offering them a piece of the ownership through sweat equity shares. 
    7. Bonus Share: In lieu of monetary compensation for dividends, companies issue bonus shares. As a result, current shareholders are only eligible for bonus shares. Companies can also issue bonus shares in order to convert a portion of their retained earnings into equity shares. 


    Anyone can accumulate a sizable amount of assets in the future by making shares investments. But, if you are unfamiliar with shares and the stock market, doing the same could be harmful to you. As such, in this post, we have explored everything about shares and have talked about the many sorts of equities currently in the marketplace. This post will help not only those who are actively invested in the stock market and want to learn about more possibilities but also those who are just getting started with stock marketing and investing.

    For any queries, consult our experts at OnDemand International.


    Instead of holding money in a savings account, an individual can put it in the financial markets, which has the chance to expand. You can generate money from shares in two distinct ways: investment income and dividends.

    A term deposit account is required to purchase shares. It’s a digital account where you can keep your assets and investments.

    Equity shares & Preference shares

    By purchasing equity shares, shareholders can get ownership stakes of the businesses and participate in their revenues as well as the share price appreciation.

    No, shares include risks just like any other type of investment. Liquidity risks, market risks, inflationary risks, regulatory risks, and so on are a few typical hazards associated with stock investing.