Starting a GMBH in Germany: Process, Costs & Reasons

This article provides an in-depth guide on the processes of starting a GMBH in Germany. A GmbH is a type of limited liability company in Germany, which provides its owners with limited personal liability for the company's debts.


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    Starting a GMBH in Germany in 2023

    If you’re an investor from a foreign country and would like to set up a German company to expand your business. In this case, you should consider a complete German Limited Liability Company with its German name “GmbH (Gesellschaft mit beschränkter Haftung)”, which will be the most suitable option.

    GMBH Germany

    A GmbH is a type of limited liability company in Germany, which provides its owners with limited personal liability for the company’s debts. It is a popular form of business structure for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) due to its flexibility and ease of setup.

    Before starting a GmbH in Germany, it is essential to have a clear understanding of the business concept, target market, and the necessary resources. It is also essential to conduct market research and develop a comprehensive business plan.

    Through this article, we will be going to provide you with an in-depth guide on the processes of starting a German GmbH entity. So if you’re keen to know more, let’s straight dive into it. 

    Procedure for starting a GmbH in Germany

    Here are the general steps for starting a GmbH in Germany, are as follows:

    Step 1:- Choose a company name and have it checked for availability at the Commercial Register (Handelsregister).

    Step 2:- Draft the company’s articles of association (Gesellschaftsvertrag) and have them notarized.

    Step 3:- Open a business bank account and deposit the minimum share capital requirement of €25,000.

    Step 4:- Register the company with the Commercial Register and get a tax identification number.

    Step 5:- Register the company with the local trade office (Gewerbeamt) and apply for any necessary business permits.

    Step 6:- Register with the Chamber of Commerce (Industrie- und Handelskammer) and any other relevant professional associations.

    Step 7:- If applicable, register for VAT (Umsatzsteuer) and obtain any other necessary tax registrations.

    Step 8:- Set up a payroll system and register with the social security agency (Sozialversicherungsträger) for employee insurance.

    Step 9:- Obtain any necessary business insurance.

    Documents Needed to Set up a GmbH in Germany

    To set up a GmbH in Germany, the following documents are generally needed:

    • Company name reservation certificate.
    • Notarized articles of association (Gesellschaftsvertrag)
    • Proof of share capital deposit (e.g. bank confirmation)
    • Identification documents for all managing directors
    • Proof of registration with the Commercial Register (Handelsregister)
    • Tax identification number (Steuernummer) for the company
    • Proof of registration with the local trade office (Gewerbeamt)
    • Business registration certificate (Gewerbeschein)
    • VAT registration certificate (if applicable)
    • Proof of social security registration for employees (if applicable)
    • Business insurance certificates (if applicable)

    Eligibility Criteria for Starting a German GmbH

    For starting a German GmbH (Gesellschaft mit beschränkter Haftung), certain eligibility standards must be met, which include:

    • Name: The firm’s name should be unique and not already endured by a different firm. It should even relate to certain legal requirements.
    • Share capital: The minimum share capital requirements for a GMBH is €25,000, which should be completely paid up before registration.
    • Directors: The firm should possess at least one managing director (Geschäftsführer), who can be a natural person or a legal entity.
    • Registered office: The firm should possess a registered office in Germany, where it can receive official correspondence.
    • Articles of association: The firm should possess articles of association (Gesellschaftsvertrag) that yield with German law and are notarized.
    • Business purpose: The firm should possess a legitimate business purpose and cannot engage in illegal activities.

    Multiple Taxes for Starting a GmbH in Germany

    When starting a GmbH in Germany, there are several taxes to consider.

    Here are a few of the crucial taxes includes:

    • Corporate income tax (Körperschaftsteuer): This is a tax on the company’s profits. The current rate is 15% plus a solidarity surcharge of 5.5%, resulting in an effective tax rate of 15.825%.
    • Trade tax (Gewerbesteuer): This is a local tax on the company’s economic activity. The rate varies by municipality, but it is typically between 14% and 17% of the taxable income.
    • Value-added tax (Umsatzsteuer): This is a tax on the company’s sales of goods and services. The standard rate is 19%, but there are also reduced rates of 7% and 0% for certain goods and services.
    • Wage tax (Lohnsteuer): This is a tax on the earnings and wages given to workers. The rate alters relying on the worker’s earnings and other factors.
    • Solidarity surcharge (Solidaritätszuschlag): This is a tax that is added to certain other taxes (such as corporate income tax) to support the costs of German reunification. The rate is currently 5.5% of the tax amount.

    Cost of Starting a GmbH in Germany

    The cost of Starting a German GmbH can vary depending on several factors, such as the location, the services needed, and the type of business.

    Here are a few of the costs that you should consider:

    Notary fees: Notarizing the articles of association is mandatory for registering a GmbH. The costs for this assistance can differ, but they typically range from €150 to €300.

    Court fees: Registering a GmbH with the commercial register (Handelsregister) involves paying court fees. The pay relies on the share capital of the firm, but it typically ranges from €150 to €350.

    Legal and tax advisory fees: Depending on your needs, you may want to seek advice from a lawyer or a tax advisor. The fees for these services can vary, but they typically range from a few hundred euros to several thousand euros.

    Share capital deposit: A minimum share capital of €25,000 is required to register a GmbH. This money needs to be deposited in a bank account, and the associated fees can vary depending on the bank and the services required.

    Other costs: There may be other costs to consider, such as registering with the local trade office (Gewerbeamt), obtaining a business registration certificate (Gewerbeschein), or getting business insurance.

    Why set up a GmbH in Germany?

    reason to setup a gmbh in germany

    There are numerous motives why someone may choose to set up a GmbH in Germany.

    Here are some of them:

    Limited liability

    One of the prominent reasons for starting a German GmbH is that the liability of the company’s shareholders is limited to their investment in the company. This indicates that if the firm incurs losses or legal issues, the stakeholders are not privately liable beyond their investment in the firm.

    Professional image 

    Having a GmbH can convey a more professional image to customers, suppliers, and other stakeholders. It may also help to establish credibility with business partners.

    Access to financing 

    Starting a German GmbH can often access financing more easily than a sole proprietorship or a partnership, since lenders may be more willing to lend to a limited liability company.

    Easy transfer of ownership 

    Shares in a GmbH can be easily transferred, which can be useful in case of changes in ownership or the need to raise additional capital.

    Good legal framework 

    Germany has a well-developed legal system and a stable political environment, which can provide a good framework for doing business. Additionally, Germany is part of the European Union, which can provide access to a large and diverse market.


    Germany has a well-developed legal system, a stable political environment, and access to a large and diverse market through the European Union. Overall, while the process of setting up a GmbH can be complex and time-consuming, it can be a worthwhile investment for those looking to start a business in Germany.

    It is important to carefully consider your needs and situation before making any decisions and to seek advice from professionals like OnDemand International to ensure that you are following all legal requirements and regulations.


    In general, the expense of having a registered business service typically ranges from 150-250 EUR in 2021.

    GmbH is regarded as an equivalent to LLC (limited liability corporation) is commonly used within the United States, or Ltd. (limited) Limited, which is used within the United Kingdom and is the most popular method to incorporate in Germany.

    It takes anywhere from one or two weeks to allow your business to be registered in the Handelsregister.

    The primary benefit of the GmbH is its limit on liability as well as the security it affords the shareholders of its members.

    The GmbH must contribute CIT (corporate income tax) of 15%, a solidarity surcharge of 0.825%, and a trade tax of around 15.4 per cent The tax rate is approximate.