Dutch CV (Commanditaire Vennootschap): Limited Partnership

A limited partnership in Netherlands is known as a Dutch CV company. This organization type was presumably known as Commanditaire Vennootschap or ordinary..


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    Overview: Dutch CV(Commanditaire Vennootschap) Company

    Dutch CV or Commanditaire Vennootschap or Limited Partnership

    A limited partnership in Netherlands is known as a Dutch CV company. This organization type was presumably known as Commanditaire Vennootschap or ordinary limited partnership before the change of the corporation act. It’s a form of collaboration that has a legal identity.

    In opposition to most others, limited partners have limited accountability and are only accountable for the capital they have invested in the business. On the other hand, the mute partners have no role in the administration. With an attorney, they are not permitted to undertake a management act.

    The number of working partners is unrestricted, and they are jointly responsible.

    There is no legal requirement for a minimum amount of capital. The members will be anticipated to submit to the Commanditaire Vennootschap what they agreed to in the articles of association. One or more controlling associates’ names must be included in the firm name.

    In this article, we will be going to discuss more in brief about the Dutch CV (Commanditaire Vennootschap ). So, without any further ado, let’s begin with it.

    What is Dutch Commanditaire Vennootschap?

    The Dutch commanditaire vennootschap, or limited partnership, is identical to a VOF (general partnership) company in the Netherlands. A limited partnership is a type of legally recognized business structure in which two or more partners work together to operate a company under a single name. One of the partners is a managing partner and the other is a silent partner. The daily operations of the company are overseen by the managing partner. The management partners are solely responsible for any potential corporate indebtedness.

    The silent or limited partner becomes involved in the financial matters of the company. In contrast to stockholders in a BV, the silent partner takes no active involvement in the business.

    Characteristics of Commanditaire Vennootschap (Dutch CV company)

    A limited partnership, often known as a Dutch CV company, is a type of partnership in which one limited and one senior partner share ownership. In practice, this refers to collaboration with the added attribute of having legal individuality.

    The so-called leaders are the part-owners, and they have the fiduciary duty to act on the corporation. They are subject to a wide range of penalties due to their legal authority. After all, they are jointly and severally liable for their debts, which is not uncommon in a partnership. On the other hand, lending institutions hold all the cords: they can’t just tinker with the panel.

    On the other hand, the limited partners are also known as the mute partners. The mute or limited partner is a lender who prefers to remain in the background and is not accountable to top management. Their guilt is similarly restricted to the amount of money he contributes.

    Nevertheless, if the mute partner engages in managerial behavior, the silent partner may be held accountable without limits (just like the general partner). That is why it is critical to establish dividing lines: a silent partner must indeed be mute in the eyes of its customers.

    The limited partnership is primarily employed for low-risk activities that require expenditure, which signifies that a borrower is engaged in the tale, according to the far-reaching potential liabilities.

    This presents the benefit for the inventor that, unlike a partnership agreement, he may control everything alone (just like a private company or a public limited company). At the same time, the borrower does not have to be concerned about a broad form of obligation as in a typical alliance.

    Requirements for Establishing a Limited Partnership in the Netherlands

    In the Netherlands, a limited partnership can only be formed once certain conditions are satisfied. 

    These prerequisites consist of:

    • Business name: The suffix “CV” or the phrase “Commanditaire Venootschaap” must be used at the conclusion of the name of a Dutch CV firm.
    • Partners: The minimum number of Partners required for Dutch CV corporations is 2, who may be either natural individuals or corporate entities.
    • Authorized share capital: There are no minimum capital requirements for Dutch CV firms.
    • Partnership Agreement: A partnership agreement is an essential legal document that spells out each partner’s obligations and contributions. To ensure its legality, the partnership agreement needs to be written and signed.

    How to set up Commanditaire Vennootschap?

    It’s easy to form a limited partnership, and you won’t have to go to the notary, which saves you money. You should, meanwhile, draft a collaboration document and make a few arrangements on your own. In practice, this entails a high level of responsibility.

    The makers

    At least one silent partner and one senior partner are required to form the limited partnership. A limited partnership often consists of more partners and one or more quiet members in practice.

    It’s not simple to locate one or more creditors. Borrowers would naturally seek hard statistics, even if seed capital or a financial plan is unnecessary. In actuality, budget analysis is not an unneeded extravagance.

    Establish a checking account.

    Your limited partnership should have its separate current account and legal identity. Open a bank account in the Netherlands. An investment plan is not required, but it is strongly suggested.

    Putting together a private deed

    A limited partnership can be formed without the assistance of a notary. The private deed and Articles of Association can be drafted jointly by the management and quiet partner or partners. You should consult with an attorney about this.

    A shortened form of the private deed must be lodged with the enterprise legislature’s registry, and the establishment must also be announced in the Netherland’s Official Gazette. The partnership business acquires legal identity and therefore can enter into transactions as soon as it is published. Your business number will be given to you. 

    Advantages Of A Dutch CV Company

    The benefits of a limited partnership are mostly tied to its ease and low cost of formation and the benefits that we are accustomed to with standard partnerships.

    • To form a Dutch CV company, no start-up capital is necessary.
    • Setup is inexpensive: It is sufficient to have a personal deed.
    • Parental partnerships are essential.
    • Lower regulatory responsibilities
    • Liability Caps Partner-in-crime
    • To persuade lenders, the best business structure is a separate legal entity.
    • As in collaboration, caution is essential.
    • There is a lot of leeway in enforcing the laws.
    • There is no need for a notary to dissolve the partnership.
    • Bookkeeping is easy.

    Downsides of a Dutch CV Company

    The sole trader is powerful in terms of liabilities. However, this has several drawbacks, undeniable for the portfolio manager.

    • Founding director with limited liability
    • Silent partners are not allowed to participate in operations.
    • A double-entry is required at a turnover of more than €500,000.
    • It’s not just about setting up.

    Taxation Structure for a Limited Partnership in the Netherlands

    You must pay income tax on your portion of the company’s profits as the managing partner. Because you are considered a business owner by the Tax and Customs Administration (Belastingdienst), you are qualified for a number of tax breaks, such as the businessmen’ allowance and a tax-deferred retirement reserve. The limited partnership also has to pay VAT. A limited partner, in contrast, is not regarded as a business owner and simply qualifies for tax incentives for investments, like the investment allowance.

    Accounting for a Dutch CV Company

    Reduced bookkeeping is usually sufficient when forming a limited partnership. As the name implies, this simpler accountancy is far less complicated than what one may find at, for instance, Dutch NV. After all, all you need is an economic diary (complete with a cash book and a bank book), a buying book, a sales book, and an inventories journal to keep track of your finances.

    Additionally, double-entry bookkeeping is essential if the limited partnership’s annual turnover surpasses €500,000. Since every operation has a counter-transaction, such double-entry accounting is a little more complex. It’s relatively unusual for a limited partnership to begin with a more straightforward entrance but subsequently adapt to a double-entry system.

    You can apply for this job to handle the accounting for a limited partnership, but you can also do it alone. It is then suggested that you use a suitable accounting program. Accounting software like this makes managing your finances a lot easier.

    In that instance, always choose a financial application to manage the restricted partnership’s specifics. Test if the proposed framework can readily go from single-entry to double-entry bookkeeping. You won’t have to hunt for updated software with a rising circulation in this manner.

    Dissolving and Liquidating a Dutch CV

    The significant events that can lead to the dissolution and liquidation of a limited partnership:

    • The passage of an incident or the timing of events after which the limited partnership dissolves as defined by the partnership act.
    • The limited partnership decides whether or not to continue as a limited partnership.
    • For further than ten working days, the limited partnership has neither general nor limited partners.
    • For ten working days or longer, the limited general partnership has failed.

    Read More: Dissolving and Liquidating a Dutch Company 

    Alternatives for liquidation

    • When a dissolution event occurs, the limited partnership might designate an administrator to the limited partnership by decision.
    • Furthermore, a limited partnership, limited partner, creditors, or the Registry may petition the Court to dissolve the limited partnership.
    • A licensed bankruptcy specialist is required of a liquidator. When the liquidation is finished, the limited partnership is delisted.

    Papers relating to the liquidation

    Any liquidator designated as a result of a terminating event must notify us of their meeting by the conclusion of another business day after their assignment.


    Companies that are short on cash and need a monetary supporter should consider this alternative. It’s also an excellent strategy to increase the size of your eenmanszaak or VOF. The shareholder becomes a member of the firm, offering financial assistance and economic advice.

    In the event of a commanditaire venootschap’s dissolution, the managing partner is individually accountable for any charges levied. The limited partner is not held legally responsible for any repayments, but their expenditure is forfeited.  

    If you are planning to set up a Dutch CV (Commanditaire Vennootschap) company, it is suggested to get the assistance of professional experts from Odint Consulting. Get in touch with us.


    Only if a limited partner is shown to have taken prominent participation in the firm and perhaps they will be held personally liable.

    By defining each partner’s obligations and how they will share in the company’s revenues, a limited partnership agreement can safeguard your company in the future.

    Dutch limited liability company incorporation typically takes one week.

    The commanditaire vennootschap is a limited partnership with two or more participants.

    The company could make regular intervals distributions (alliance draws) during the year to reimburse you as a companion and pay you for your invested capital.