Dutch NV (Naamloze Vennootschap): Public Limited Company

People always wonder as to how to set up Naamloze vennootschap. In Dutch, a public limited company, also known as a Naamloze vennootschap (NV), is a legal entity.


    Note:This form is not for job seekers or salary employees. Thank you.

    Table of Contents

    What is Dutch NV(Naamloze Vennootschap)?

    Dutch NV or Naamloze Vennootschap

    People always wonder as to how to set up Naamloze vennootschap. In Dutch, a public limited company, also known as a Naamloze vennootschap (NV), is a legal entity in the Netherlands. The fundamental distinction between a Dutch BV and a Dutch NV is size: an NV is usually a more prominent firm with more directors. A public limited company’s capital is split into units, which also are controlled by its stockholders. A public limited company (NV) raises money by offering shares. 

    The board is in charge of the company’s day-to-day operations. A Dutch NV frequently has a monitoring committee that oversees administration (two-tier board). In some circumstances, the supervisors are the board of directors (one-tier board). NVs that participate in the stock exchange must adhere to the Corporate Governance Code, which outlines how the company’s management and regulatory board must communicate with its investors.

    Functioning of Dutch NV(Naamloze Vennootschap)

    A public limited company’s capital is subdivided into shares, which the investors own. These shareholders have ultimate control. They have authority over the company’s performance. They have the authority to select and clear the board of directors. Only recognized shares, not bearer shares, are permitted to be issued by Dutch NVs.

    On the stock exchange, a Dutch NV can purchase and sell stocks. A variety of requirements must be met to do so. For instance, your business must have been in operation for about five years, have at least five million euros in capital, and have a total value of more than 5 million euros in shares. Your business must have been produced for at least three years in the last five years.

    The NV’s profits are subject to corporate income tax (VPB). You can take advantage of company income tax deductions, such as various investment allowances. The Dutch NV must deduct dividend tax if it pays cash to shareholders. VAT is paid by the NV as well.

    You start paying your salary and dividend duty on your stocks if you are a director of a public limited business. Boards must be given a market-competitive remuneration, with a least €48,000 per year in principle (this charge is in command as of 1 January 2022).

    Requirements for an NV in the Netherlands

    • To establish an NV in the Netherlands, you must have at least EUR 45,000 in share capital.
    • In the Netherlands, an NV corporation is required to consist of a managing board, a supervising board, and a minimum of one shareholder.
    • It is essential to have a locally registered address to incorporate an NV in the Netherlands. 

    Establishing a public limited company (NV)

    A civil law notary is required to establish a public limited company (NV). The civil-law notary draughts the notarial deed with the articles of association and files your nv with the Netherlands Chamber of Commerce (KVK) in the Dutch Business Register (Handelsregister).

    Additionally, every director is included in the Business Register. You are held personally responsible up until the enrollment is completed. Additionally, you must provide an initial investment of at least €45,000.

    Special Considerations

    Until your NV is formed, you can begin conducting business with it. Nonetheless, you must next submit your application with the Trade Register. A registrar must certify that they will look after the company. Until it is created, the NV will appear as an ‘NV in creation’ (in Dutch: NV in oprichting or NV io).

    You must make it evident to your trading partners that all agreements signed during this phase are on behalf of the ‘NV in formation.’ The limited company might only assume over a contract once it is formed if the other party is willing. Bear in mind that as much as you operate on account of the ‘NV in formation,’ you are legally responsible.

    The capital/stock of a public limited corporation is divided into shares, which the investors own. The ultimate control rests with these shareholders. They are in charge of the firm’s management. They have the right to assign and dismiss the board of trustee’s representatives. Dutch Nvs would only be allowed to issue recognized shares, not bearer shareholdings.

    Key characteristics of the Naamloze Vennootschap

    The liability of shareholders willing to invest in an NV is limited to the value of the contribution, just like it is in the situation of a BVBA firm. A public limited company’s share capital is greater than that of other businesses in Belgium. When the incorporation process commences, a minimum of €45,000 should be submitted entirely. 

    A bank account for the firm must be formed if the donations are made in cash. An NV corporation can also make in-kind payments. The firm’s documentation, which must be drawn out before a court in Belgium, will be drawn up by the founders. N.V. is a Naamloze Vennootschap or limited liability company or an independent firm that sells shares to the general public.

    Our Netherlands legal firm’s experts can also assist you with the procedures for businesses seeking to engage in commercial activity. We can assist you with completing the required paperwork and obtaining your VAT number.

    NV found in other countries

    At least two people must be the company’s owners. If their responsibilities within the firm do not clash with the matrimonial law, married people in Belgium can create an NV company. If only two shareholders create the firm, the board members can be restricted to two members for such a business. The number of industry members must be three in all other circumstances.

    A public limited corporation must meet several book-keeping and regulatory criteria in Belgium. Successful corporations that want to enhance their operations and hire workers must follow Belgian labor laws.

    To trade within the EU, economic operators formed as a Belgian NV would need to enroll for EORI purposes.

    In Belgium, commercial taxes are collected from all limited public enterprises. Reach any skilled Belgian business setup specialists for updated data on setting up a Belgian company and the incorporation method and prerequisites.

    Merits and demerits of Dutch NV

    The following are some of the primary advantages Naamloze vennootschap of forming and operating an N.V. in the Netherlands:

    • Using corporate tax rates and deductions to their benefit.
    • Due to the lack of a requirement for shareholder identities, stockholders can maintain their confidentiality.
    • No funds are required to enroll shares until they are completely paid up.
    • The liabilities of the business are not individually responsible to the shareholders.

    The following are some of the significant disadvantages of forming and administering an N.V. in the Netherlands:

    • When registering an N.V., more cash is necessary than when registering a B.V.
    • For an N.V. to be listed on a stock exchange, it must meet high capital and share capitalization standards.
    • Because shares aren’t recorded, they’re easy to get by.

    Example of an NV(Naamloze Vennootschap)

    Exor N.V. is among the country’s top Naamloze Vennootschap. Although the industry’s origins may be traced back to the late 1800s, Giovanni Agnelli did not formally establish Fabbrica Italiana Automobili Torino (FIAT) till 1927.

    As of January 20, 2022, it is a trading corporation with a roughly $18.2 billion market valuation. 10

    Recapitalization, automotive, farming, and competitive sports are among the industries it invests in. PartnerRe, Juventus,  CNH Industrial, Fiat Chrysler Automobiles, Ferrari, and The Economist are among the company’s business units.

    The Italian Agnelli family still controls the majority of the corporation nowadays.

    What is the difference between Dutch NV and Dutch BV?

    Both entities have a legal identity, issue stock, and offer stockholders limited responsibility. There are, however, differences between the Dutch BV and the Dutch NV:

    •  The critical variation seems to be that a BV must only generate certified/registered shares, but an NV can issue both registered and bearer shares (which are easily transferable). As a result, a capital market can only list the shares of an NV. Another significant distinction is paid-in capital: a BV can be formed to only EUR 0.01 in paid-in capital. A Paid-in capital of EUR 45,000 is required when forming an NV.
    • A Dutch BV also allows for more flexibility when drafting the articles of association. For example, a BV’s articles of association may stipulate that the investors/stockholders are accountable for the BV’s liabilities. The incorporators might also limit the availability of stocks or provide that issued shares have no voting or income privileges.


    The favorable tax structure, the economic climate, the robust financial sector, the geographical position, the standard of living, and, most crucially, the top player administration all attract foreign investment. The establishment of a Public Limited Company, sometimes referred to as a “NV” or “Naamloze Vennootschap” in the Netherlands, provides a well-known and adaptable legal framework for carrying on commercial operations. With the separation of ownership and management made possible by an NV, shareholders have a limited scope of responsibility and possible access to financial markets.


    The critical distinction is that an NV can create both registered and bearer shares (easily transferable), but BV can only provide registered shares.

    The abbreviation N.V. stands for Naamloze Vennootschap, a public limited liability business in the Netherlands and other Dutch-influenced countries. An N.V. provides investors with voting power over the organization, allowing shareholders to stay anonymous and executives to avoid individual responsibility.

    In the Netherlands, a Public Limited Company (NV) must have at least €45,000 in share capital.

    You require an initial investment of €45,000 to establish a nv. Additionally, you must pay accounting expenses, KVK registration expenses, and civil law notary charges. The costs vary depending on the civil law notary. The prices typically range from €500 to €2,200.

    An nv cannot be terminated without a formal vote by the shareholders’ general meeting. The firm must then settle its debts and distribute its dividends in order to stay in business.