Civil Law Partnerships in Poland: Complete Guide

In this guide, we will discuss civil law partnerships in Poland, exploring their characteristics, registration process, and other necessary details.


    Note:This form is not for job seekers or salary employees. Thank you.

    Table of Contents

    civil law partnerships in poland


    Poland’s entrepreneurial landscape offers a diverse array of business structures, and among them, the civil law partnership, known as “spółka cywilna,” stands out for its simplicity and flexibility. If you’re considering venturing into Polish business with partners, understanding this unique structure is key. Let’s delve into the world of civil law partnerships, exploring their characteristics, registration process, and everything in between.

    What is a Civil Law Partnership?

    Imagine joining forces with like-minded individuals to pursue a shared economic goal. That’s the essence of a civil law partnership. It’s a contractual agreement where partners combine their efforts, skills, and resources to achieve objectives like operating a business in Poland, managing property, or undertaking specific projects. Unlike joint-stock companies or limited partnerships, a civil law partnership lacks a separate legal identity. The partners themselves remain distinct legal entities while acting jointly towards their common aim.

    Key Features of Civil Law Partnership in Poland

    Flexibility and Autonomy:

    Poland offers a great degree of flexibility in civil law partnerships, enabling participants to customize the agreement to meet their unique circumstances. This flexibility includes the allocation of profits, the management structure, and the decision-making procedures.

    Limited Liability:

    One of the key advantages of a civil law partnership is the limited liability of its members. Unlike other business structures, partners in a civil law partnership are not personally accountable for the partnership’s debts as well as obligations.

    Taxation Benefits:

    Civil law partnerships in Poland enjoy certain tax advantages. Generally, profits are solely subject to individual taxation, preventing double taxation. It is therefore a popular option for company owners seeking tax efficiency.

    Simple Formation:

    Establishing a civil law partnership in Poland is a simple procedure. Partners can create the partnership through a written agreement, and there is no need for a notary or extensive paperwork. This simplicity makes it an accessible option for small businesses and startups.

    Registration of Civil Law Partnership in Poland

    Drafting a Partnership Agreement:

    The foundation of a civil law partnership lies in a carefully created partnership agreement. This document must cover the rights and duties of each partner, the purpose of the partnership, profit-sharing arrangements, and other essential details.

    Registering with the National Court Register (KRS):

    Although it is not required, there are benefits to registering the civil law partnership with the National Court Register (KRS). Legal personality is granted to registered partnerships, which can be important for transactions and economic operations.

    Tax Identification Number (NIP) and Statistical Number (REGON):

    Partnerships in Poland have to acquire a Tax Identification Number (NIP) and a Statistical Number (REGON). These identification numbers are essential for conducting business, establishing a bank account, and paying your taxes.


    Civil law partnerships in Poland provide a flexible and efficient means of corporate collaboration for both people and organizations. Due to their advantageous tax status, limited liability, and adaptable form, these partnerships are increasingly being favored by business owners. The simplicity of formation, coupled with the option to register with the National Court Register for added legal benefits, makes civil law partnerships an accessible option for businesses of all sizes.

    Whether you are a startup founder, a small business owner, or an individual looking to collaborate, the features and benefits of civil law partnerships make them a compelling option in the Polish business landscape. If you are looking to set up your business presence in Poland, you can speak with our business professionals from OnDemand International. Our experts will help you establish your company and will also support you with other associated matters including reserving a company name, obtaining the necessary paperwork, and securing a virtual office.


    In order to prevent double taxation, partnership profits are normally subject to individual taxation. Partners report their share of profits in their personal income tax returns.

    While not mandatory, registering with the KRS provides legal personality to the partnership, enhancing its credibility and facilitating certain transactions.

    Yes, if the business grows or changes its structure, partners have the flexibility to convert the civil law partnership into another legal form, such as a limited liability company.

    No, one of the key features of a civil law partnership is limited liability. Partners are not personally responsible for the obligations and liabilities of the partnership.