Privatization and Disinvestment: Definition, Objectives & Advantages

Privatization and disinvestment have the same meaning: the plan is to sell a piece of its stock to the private industry in order to cut government waste, and limit escalating non-performing instruments to prove operational efficiency.


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    difference between privatization and disinvestment

    Privatization and Disinvestment

    Privatization and disinvestment have the same meaning: the plan is to sell a piece of its stock to the private industry in order to cut government waste, limit escalating non-performing instruments to prove operational efficiency, and so on.

    The only distinction between privatization and disinvestment is that in privatization, the administration in India liquidates its shareholdings to the melody of more than 51%, transferring control rights to the private sector, whereas in disinvestment, the administration liquidates a fraction of its equity stake equal to or less than 49%, retaining ownership and shareholders of the business in India.

    Meaning of Privatization

    It is a procedure in which the state relinquishes management of a state-owned company’s owners and control and distributes it to a privately held firm. The government takes this move in the hopes of increasing productivity and turning a borrowing, huge deficit government entity into a revenue one. When the private sector enters realms of business where the government formerly held a monopoly or if the state is engaged in a firm, it is known as privatization. When the majority ownership of a government-owned corporation is shifted to private hands, the corporation is regarded to have been privatized.

    Due to the obvious elimination of administration, reduction of needless spending, and limited but productive activities in the private sector, supporters of privatization say that private actors can manage a firm more effectively than government-controlled enterprises.

    Read More: Privatization Of Banks In India

    The objective of Privatization

    objectives of privatization

    Hereunder are the goals that the government in India hopes to achieve through the privatization of public corporations:

    • To generate income for other industries or programs.
    • Improved production effectiveness within the current administrative framework.
    • To keep the government out of corporate operations and processes that should preferably be left to the marketplace.
    • To boost the competitive environment and provide sustainable growth.

    Modes of Privatization

    modes of privatization

    There are a variety of ways to privatize a business. These are some of them:

    • Transfer of control of an Indian government’s corporation’s operations to private ownership.
    • On the open market, assets are sold.
    • Government firms are being sold.
    • Holdings of the state corporation are being sold.
    • With the right to purchase, you can rent with the ability to buy.
    • A payment that is private
    • Auctions
    • Direct negotiations
    • Tenders

    What goals does privatization hope to achieve?

    • Privatization helps the economy flourish while reducing government involvement.
    • Through privatization, government influence over the market is removed.
    • Deregulation of the marketplace and privatization enable the private sectors to become more involved and promote competitiveness in the economy.


    Advantages of Privatization:

    Minimal government involvement and qualified staff:

    Unlike state public sector operations, where choices are made only on the premised needs and other aspects are neglected, the actively managed private plan will handle judgments based on strong business procedures.

    Private administration promotes productivity:

    In practice, when a government activity in India is privatized, it is done so with the expectation that the private administration assuming over would benefit the company compared to how the government enterprise formerly operated. There will be enhanced customer support, which will benefit both the consumers and the company.

    Investing Attractions:

    In comparison to publicly owned bureaucratically managed enterprises, privately owned, profit-driven, professionally managed entities have a higher chance of attracting more market investments. The market’s investment will assist to strengthen the economy even further.

    Competitiveness has risen:

    The transition from a public to a private corporation will allow the market to develop naturally. For enhanced consumer satisfaction, experiments will be begun, and newer, more customer-friendly, more efficient goods will be released.

    Disadvantages of Privatization:

    Rise of Unemployment:

    The public sector has been marred by a bureaucratic organization in which too much of the workforce is allotted to unimportant tasks. On the other side, the private sector is noted for its efficiency, high-tech applications, and optimization. This means filtering out irrelevant jobs and exporting or doing them using automation. This entails huge unemployment, particularly in low-wage, unskilled jobs.

    The welfare state of India takes a back seat:

    Profit is what drives the private players. As a result, the business will be solely focused on the wealthier segments of society, while the poor and disadvantaged segments would be overlooked. Financial inclusion, which is taken care of by public sector banks, will be thrown out the window if government-owned enterprises are turned over to the private sector.

    Disinvestment definition:

    Disinvestment is the method of offering a public sector undertaking’s interest to a private business by disposing of its resources and handing over managerial authority to the private sector. Authority is often provided for up to 49% of the government endeavor, or whatever proportion the competent authority permits. It is a technique in which a governmental agency begins to liquidate its resources, such as tools and machinery, facilities, and so on.

    Types of disinvestments:

    The necessity for disinvestment occurs when the government wishes to be freed of the undertaking’s financial load or to obtain capital for expansion in certain initiatives. This also aids in maintaining fiscal discipline and sets a precedent for new ideas and advancements in the particular industry.

    • Disinvestment by the majority: When the government is selling the bulk of its interest in a government project after disinvestment and transfers it to private ownership.
    • Disinvestment by minorities: When the government is able to retain managerial control of a government undertaking after disinvestment that is when the government owns more than 51% of the company.
    • Disinvestment in its entirety: It’s a type of disinvestment in which the government relinquishes total management to the private sector.

    Objectives of Disinvestment

    The following are the goals that the administration wants to accomplish through state company disinvestment:

    • To relieve the state of bad loans, liabilities, and other liabilities.
    • To raise funding for modernization and effectiveness in operations.
    • To increase the competitiveness of these businesses and vary their management.

    Modes of Disinvestment:

    To convey the resources of initiatives taken, the following methods of disinvestment are used:

    • By way of Warehouse, where public enterprises keep the assets of a disinvested public entity until a private bidder comes along to acquire them.
    • Targeted Disinvestment is a type of disinvestment in which the amount disinvested is limited.
    • The sale of assets in one public sector enterprise to another PSU is known as bridge ownership.
    • Protocol of institutionalized assignment.
    • Matters of public

    Advantages of disinvestment:

    Other types of invested capital:

    The government of India is attempting to secure funding and deploy it in other areas that demand attention. This might involve purchasing the most up-to-date technology and machinery for the business, as well as carrying out development programs and participating in other social welfare initiatives.

    Unshackle the government of nonperforming assets:

    The primary motivation for privatized public sector enterprises is to relieve the administration of bad loans and the sum of funds it must invest in these unproductive huge deficit ventures.

    Compete with your rivals:

    The government hopes that when new private competitors enter the managerial ranks, they will implement policies that would raise the firm up to pace with other competitive competitors, ultimately turning a loss-making business into a successful one.

    Disadvantages of disinvestment:

    • Transferring public capital to pay a brief budgetary shortage is a bad idea: The idea of selling public assets to satisfy short-term aims of managing the budget shortfall may result in the sale of valuable assets that may have saved the nation in an emergency. This behavior may, in the not-too-distant future, result in the rapid depletion of much-needed public funds.
    • Private Monopolies may emerge as a result of total underfunding: When the government begins to completely disinvest in public enterprises that formerly held a constitutional monopoly position, there is a risk that they may transform into a private monopoly that will begin exploiting the public.
    • Private entities do threaten property investments: The valuable commodities that are transferred to private firms during disinvestment may be misused by the private sector, leading to a loss of the entire country.
    • Concerns about public safety: Exporting off vital industries like petroleum and the military, among others, has the capacity to jeopardize strategic interests in the hands of the private sector, which prioritizes revenue over public safety.

    What distinguishes privatization from disinvestment?

    • The term “privatization” refers to the full or partial selling of the public industry’s ownership share in a state-owned enterprise to the private industry whereas disinvestment is a technique for disposing or liquidation a portion of the assets that the state or organization owns.
    • When a company is privatized, the government sells higher than 50% of its stock, whereas when a company is disinvested, lesser than 50% of the govt’s stock is sold.



    As observed from the preceding explanation, the advantages of governmental disengagement in India in business fields exceed the disadvantages of privatization and disinvestment. Considering all of the dangers connected with privatization and disinvestment of public sector enterprises, the state should refrain from transferring its shares outright. Alternatively, the administration should concentrate on disconnecting government involvement in these businesses’ administration and transforming them into firms with sufficient independence to operate them efficiently.


    The method of exchanging control of a public sector project for the private sector is known as privatization. Disinvestment is the practice of a company or government selling or liquidating its holdings.

    By allowing a corporation to lower its liabilities, could prepare the path for a nation’s protracted progress and expansion. Furthermore, it allows the marketplace to possess a higher percentage of PSUs, encouraging the growth of a broader financial market. Aside from the benefits, there are several drawbacks of privatization:

    By allowing a corporation to lower its liabilities, could prepare the path for a nation’s protracted progress and expansion. Furthermore, it allows the marketplace to possess a higher percentage of PSUs, encouraging the growth of a broader financial market.